Special character codes

Special character codes

If you need to format the text or use special characters in any of the form fields, please use the HTML coding for format tags, symbols, Greek characters, and letters with diacritics provided below.


Example:

If you want the following sentence to appear in your abstract:

El Niño weather conditions raised pond temperatures to >35°C., resulting in decreased populations of Culex tarsalis.

… then you would enter the following in the form field:

El Ni&ntilde;o weather conditions raised pond temperatures to &gt;35&#deg;C., resulting in decreased populations of <em>Culex tarsalis</em>.


Return to the abstract submission form

Text formatting tags

Both an opening and a closing "tag" are required to format text. Multiple tag sets may be combined to achieve a desired format. Formatting tags may also be combined with the symbol and special character codes.

FormatTagsExample
BOLD<strong> … </strong><strong>BOLD</strong>
ITALIC<em> … </em><em>ITALIC</em>
SUPERSCRIPT<sup> … </sup><sup>SUPER</sup>SCRIPT
SUBSCRIPT<sub> … </sub><sub>SUB</sub>SCRIPT
combined formats2<strong><em>combined formats<sup>2</sup></em></strong>

Codes for symbols

All codes begin with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you forget either, the symbol will NOT render correctly.

DescriptionCharacterCode
greater than symbol>&gt;
less than symbol<&lt;
em dash&mdash;
en dash&ndash;
degree sign°&deg;
plus-or-minus sign±&plusmn;
micro signµ&micro;
copyright sign©&copy;
registered trademark sign®&reg;
division sign÷&divide;
multiplication sign×&times;
feminine ordinal indicatorª&ordf;
masculine ordinal indicatorº&ordm;
left double angle bracket«&laquo;
right double angle bracket»&raquo;
logical not sign¬&not;
middle dot, centered dot·&middot;
broken vertical bar¦&brvbar;
Latin small f with hook = function = florinƒ&fnof;

Codes for Greek characters

All codes begin with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you forget either, the character will NOT render correctly.

Capital letters

DescriptionCharacterCode
capital alphaΑ&Alpha;
capital betaΒ&Beta;
capital gammaΓ&Gamma;
capital deltaΔ&Delta;
capital epsilonΕ&Epsilon;
capital zetaΖ&Zeta;
capital etaΗ&Eta;
capital thetaΘ&Theta;
capital iotaΙ&Iota;
capital kappaΚ&Kappa;
capital lambdaΛ&Lambda;
capital muΜ&Mu;
capital nuΝ&Nu;
capital xiΞ&Xi;
capital omicronΟ&Omicron;
capital piΠ&Pi;
capital rhoΡ&Rho;
capital sigmaΣ&Sigma;
capital tauΤ&Tau;
capital upsilonΥ&Upsilon;
Greek upsilon with hook symbolϒ&upsih;
capital phiΦ&Phi;
capital chiΧ&Chi;
capital psiΨ&Psi;
capital omegaΩ&Omega;

Small letters

DescriptionCharacterCode
small alphaα&alpha;
small betaβ&beta;
small gammaγ&gamma;
small deltaδ&delta;
small epsilonε&epsilon;
small zetaζ&zeta;
small etaη&eta;
small thetaθ&theta;
small theta symbolϑ&thetasym;
small iotaι&iota;
small kappaκ&kappa;
small lambdaλ&lambda;
small muμ&mu;
small nuν&nu;
small xiξ&xi;
small omicronο&omicron;
small piπ&pi;
Greek pi symbolϖ&piv;
small rhoρ&rho;
small final sigmaς&sigmaf;
small sigmaσ&sigma;
small tauτ&tau;
small upsilonυ&upsilon;
small phiφ&phi;
small chiχ&chi;
small psiψ&psi;
small omegaω&omega;